|Реферат‚ 5 стр.|
Просмотров: 2316 | Скачиваний: 75
Mazepa, Ivan, b 20 March 1639 in Mazepyntsi, near Bila Tserkva, d 2 October 1709 in Bendery, Bessarabia. (Portrait: Ivan Mazepa.) Hetman of Ukraine in 1687–1709; son of Stepan-Adam Mazepa and Maryna Mazepa. He studied at the Kyivan Mohyla College and at the Jesuit college in Warsaw. While a page at the court of Jan II Casimir Vasa in Warsaw, he was sent by the king to study in Holland. In 1656–9 he learned gunnery in Deventer and visited Germany, Italy, France, and the Low Countries. After his return to Warsaw Mazepa continued his service as a royal courtier, and in 1659–63 he was sent on various diplomatic missions to Ukraine. The legend of his affair with Madame Falbowska and his subsequent punishment by being tied to the back of a wild horse was first popularized by the Polish memorialist J. C. Pasek. Although it has no basis in fact, it has inspired a number of European Romantics, including Franz Liszt, Peter Tchaikovsky, G. Byron, Victor Hugo, and Aleksandr Pushkin and led to a rather fanciful image of the Ukrainian hetman as a youth.
In 1663 Mazepa returned to Ukraine to help his ailing father. After his father‘s death in 1665 he succeeded him as hereditary cupbearer of Chernihiv. In 1669 Mazepa entered the service of Hetman Petro Doroshenko as a squadron commander in the Hetman‘s Guard, and later he served as Doroshenko‘s chancellor. He took part in Doroshenko‘s 1672 campaign against Poland in Galicia and served on diplomatic missions, including ones to the Crimea and Turkey (1673–4). During a mission in 1674 he was captured by the Zaporozhian otaman Ivan Sirko, who was forced to hand him over to Doroshenko‘s rival in Left-Bank Ukraine, Ivan Samoilovych. Mazepa quickly gained the confidence of Samoilovych and Tsar Peter I, was made a ‘courtier of the hetman,’ and was sent on numerous missions to Moscow. Mazepa participated in the Chyhyryn campaigns, 1677–8. In 1682 he was appointed Samoilovych‘s general osaul. He was elected the new hetman on 25 July 1687 by the Cossack council that deposed Samoilovych and concluded the disadvantageous Kolomak Articles with the tsar.
Mazepa‘s political program had become evident during his service to Petro Doroshenko and Ivan Samoilovych. He was a firm supporter of a pan-Ukrainian Hetman state, and his main goal as hetman was to unite all Ukrainian territories in a unitary state that would be modeled on existing European states but would retain the features of the traditional Cossack order. Initially Mazepa believed that Ukraine could coexist with Russia on the basis of the Pereiaslav Treaty of 1654. Mazepa actively supported Russia‘s wars with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate and sent his forces to help those of Peter I (see Russo-Turkish wars). Although the Treaty of Constantinople of 3 July 1700 did not extend Ukrainian dominion to the Black Sea, it temporarily secured Ukrainian lands from Turkish encroachment and Crimean Tatar incursions. Until 1708 Mazepa also supported Peter I in the first phase of his Northern War with Sweden, by providing the Russians with troops, munitions, money, and supplies in their effort to capture the Baltic lands. Mazepa‘s participation in the war made it possible for him to take control of Right-Bank Ukraine in 1704, after Semen Palii‘s Cossack revolt effectively weakened Polish authority there. Mazepa‘s relations with Palii were not entirely positive, however. Mazepa did not share the Khvastiv colonel‘s radical social policies, and that difference gave rise to conflicts between them.
|Дата создания: 2010-10-15 00:00:00|
|Другие работы по теме:|